The Security Council Approved Resolution 2640 (2022) on 29 June 2022, Renewing MINUSMA's Mandate for Another Year.
The Security Council renewed the mandate of the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA) for an additional year, through the adoption of resolution 2640 (2022) under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations. As a result, the Mission will maintain its current levels of uniformed personnel — comprising 13,289 troops and 1,920 police — until 30 June 2023.
MINUSMA's main strategic priority has remained unchanged: to support the implementation of both the Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in Mali ("the Agreement") and the full realization of the political transition.
Through this renewed mandate, the Security Council has also upheld the Mission’s second strategic priority, which is to support the Malian government in the implementation of a comprehensive, inclusive, politically focused strategy. This approach addresses the root causes and drivers of violent conflict, protects civilians, reduces intercommunal violence, and advances the re-establishment of State presence, State authority and basic social services in central Mali.
Resolution 2640 (2022) further requests that the Secretary-General conduct a thorough assessment of the situation in northern and central Mali, the transition, and the configuration of the Mission with respect to the implementation of its strategic priorities, including human rights, every three (3) months.
The Political Transition
In the renewed mandate, the Security Council took note of the Transition Government of Mali’s decision to extend the transition period by 24 months starting on 26 March 2022, following the non-achievement of the agreed 18-month transition timeline, however lauding that some work done to foster dialogue and lay the foundations for reforms. The Council further reiterated its support to the mediation efforts by ECOWAS and its mediator, and encouraged engagement in good faith negotiations, ahead of the ECOWAS Summit scheduled for 3 July 2022, in order to reach agreement on credible and acceptable timelines for the holding of inclusive, free, fair and transparent elections and the swift return to constitutional order.
The Security Council also reiterated that the UN and other international partners remain firmly committed to the implementation of the Agreement as a means to achieve long-term peace and stability in Mali, and acknowledged the efforts of the head and members of the Comité de suivi de l’Accord (CSA) to enhance the implementation of the Agreement. However, the Council expressed concern that the lack of engagement by the Transition Government of Mali and the Plateforme and Coordination armed groups (“the Malian parties”) has prevented the CSA meeting since October 2021, and manifested a significant impatience with parties over the persistent delays in the implementation of the Agreement.
The Security Council underlined that peace and security in the Sahel region will not be achieved without a combination of political, security, peacebuilding and sustainable development efforts benefitting all regions of Mali, as well as the full, effective and inclusive implementation of the Agreement. It also noted that the full, equal and meaningful participation of women and youth must be ensured, and welcomed the increased representation of women in the CSA. The Council further urged the Malian parties to work towards resuming the meetings of all implementing bodies of the Agreement and to swiftly take significant, meaningful, tangible and irreversible measures to implement the political, security, reconciliation and development provisions of the Agreement, and recalled its readiness to respond with measures pursuant to resolution 2374 (2017) should the parties engage in hostilities in violation of the Agreement, take actions that obstruct, or that obstruct by prolonged delay, or that threaten the implementation of the Agreement.
Strategy for the Center
With respect to the Center, the Security Council urges the Malian authorities, before the end of MINUSMA’s current mandate, to agree on and effectively implement a comprehensive, inclusive, politically-focused strategy which: addresses the root causes and drivers of violent conflict, protects civilians, reduces intercommunal violence, and re-establishes State presence and authority as well as basic social services in Central Mali. In the renewed mandate, the Council noted the need for extra protection for women and children in vulnerable situations and marginalized groups. It also urged the Malian authorities to fight against impunity for violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, by investigating alleged human rights violations and abuses and violations of international humanitarian law, by ensuring freedom of movement for MINUSMA to implement its current human rights mandate, by holding the corresponding trials, and by communicating progress on such investigations and trials to the people of Mali, including the families of victims, to curb illicit flows of weapons, and to disarm without delay all militias through Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes, reinforce reconciliation initiatives, and advance community violence reduction efforts.
Working Alongside and in Support of Malian Authorities
The Security Council affirms that the Malian authorities have the primary responsibility to protect civilians in Mali, and it hence appealed these authorities to take expedited action to protect civilians throughout the country, and to prevent, minimize and address civilian harm that might result from operations undertaken by the Malian Defense and Security Forces (MDSF).
In the context of the implementation of the Agreement for Peace and Reconciliation in Mali, the political transition and the elections, the Security Council urged Malian authorities to implement the following priority measures and called on them to:
- Make tangible progress, to be monitored by a robust monitoring mechanism committed to by the Government, to achieve the Political Transition, the swift return to constitutional order and the handover of power to democratically elected civilian authorities, in cooperation with ECOWAS in order to reach agreement, by organizing free and fair elections and, as appropriate, a constitutional referendum, conducted in a transparent and inclusive manner, with the full, equal and meaningful participation of women, youth, Malian refugees and internally displaced persons;
- Ensure that all electoral processes are in line with international human rights standards on elections, including for members of opposition parties, of the media and of civil society, reiterating decisions that the Head of the Transition and the Prime minister of the Transition should not under any circumstances be candidates for the forthcoming presidential election, and insist on the need for trust, dialogue and compromise, in order to achieve a consensual and inclusive Transition laying the foundations for a more stable, democratic and peaceful country;
- Support the establishment by all relevant Malian parties of a comprehensive plan for the redeployment of the reformed and reconstituted MDSF in the North of Mali, including with a view to them assuming responsibility for security;
- Ensure full, equal and meaningful participation of women in the mechanisms established by the Agreement to support and monitor its implementation, including by increasing the meaningful representation of women in all CSA mechanisms, operationalizing the Women’s Observatory and its regional branches;
- Facilitate the return of State presence, State authority, the rule of law and basic social services in the Centre, supporting the redeployment of the MDSF there, ensuring their operationality, responsiveness, and accountability, while establishing monitoring and evaluation structures and implementing concrete measures in this regard;
- Reinforce efforts to strengthen accountability and ensure that all those responsible for crimes involving violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law, including those involving sexual and gender based violence, and human trafficking, are held accountable and brought to justice without undue delay, and notes, in this regard, the Malian authorities’ continued cooperation with the ICC, in accordance with Mali’s obligations under the Rome Statute, in matters that are within its jurisdiction;
- Continue, pursuing sustainable and inclusive socio-economic development in Central Mali with the help of their partners, notably through development projects on education, infrastructures, and public health, with a special attention to youth.
The Security Council has established the following priority tasks as part of MINUSMA’s mandate:
Support the implementation of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali and to the full realization of the Political Transition
- Support for the implementation of the political and institutional reforms provided by the Agreement, especially in its Part II, notably to support the Transition Government’s efforts for the effective restoration and extension of State authority and rule of law throughout the territory, including through supporting the effective functioning of interim administrations in the North of Mali under the conditions set out in the Agreement;
- Support for the implementation of the defence and security measures of the Agreement, particularly those related to the ceasefire as well as the cantonment, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of armed groups, the gradual redeployment of the reformed and reconstituted MDSF in the North of Mali;
- Support the implementation of reconciliation and justice measures, in consultation with the parties;
- Assist, within existing resources and areas of deployment, in the holding of free and fair elections, conducted in a peaceful environment and a transparent and inclusive manner, including through the provision of appropriate logistical and technical assistance and effective security arrangements, in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement.
Support stabilization and the restoration of State authority in the Centre
- Facilitate the stabilization and return of State authority in the Centre, including through support to Malian authorities in the reduction of violence and inter-communal tensions, using its good offices;
- Support the redeployment of the MDSF to the Centre, including through continued operational, logistical and transportation support during coordinated and joint operations, on the basis of clear, coherent and dynamic planning, strengthened information and intelligence sharing and medical evacuation, within existing resources. As well, assist Malian authorities in ensuring that those responsible for violations and abuses of human rights and violations of international humanitarian law are held accountable and brought to justice without delay;
- Protect, without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities, civilians under threat of physical violence. Particularly so, women and children affected by armed conflict. Furthermore, in support of the Malian authorities, the Council urged them to take active steps to anticipate, deter and effectively respond to threats to the civilian population, notably in the North and Centre of Mali, through a comprehensive and integrated approach, and in this regard: strengthening early warning mechanisms and intensifying efforts to monitor and document violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of international human rights law
- Strengthen community engagement and protection mechanisms, including interaction with civilians and community outreach, while taking mobile, flexible, robust and proactive steps to protect civilians, including through the deployment of ground and air assets, as available, in areas where civilians are most at risk;
- Engage in good offices, confidence-building, facilitation of dialogue and mediation at the national and local levels, in order to support dialogue with and among all stakeholders towards reconciliation and social cohesion, and support efforts to reduce inter-communal tensions, bearing in mind the primary responsibility of the Malian authorities;
- Assist the Malian authorities in their efforts to promote and protect human rights, in particular in the areas of justice and reconciliation. This includes to support, as feasible and appropriate, the efforts of the Malian authorities, without prejudice to their responsibilities, to bring to justice without undue delay those responsible for serious violations or abuses of human rights or violations of international humanitarian law, in particular war crimes and crimes against humanity in Mali; as well as to monitor, document, help investigate and report publicly and quarterly to the Security Council, on violations of international humanitarian law and on violations and abuses of human rights, including all forms of sexual and gender-based violence, trafficking in persons, and violations and abuses committed against women and children throughout Mali and to contribute to efforts to prevent such violations and abuses;
- Contribute to the creation of a secure environment, in support of the Malian authorities, for the safe civilian-led delivery of humanitarian assistance, consistent with humanitarian principles, and the voluntary, safe and dignified return, local integration or resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees in close coordination with humanitarian actors; as well as contribute to the creation of a secure environment for quick impact projects in direct support to the implementation of the Agreement in the North or in response to specific needs in the Centre on the basis of strong conflict analysis;
- Engage in the protection of UN personnel, including uniformed personnel (military and UN police), facilities, and equipment as well as ensuring the safety, security, and freedom of movement of UN and associated personnel;
MINUSMA's mandate also includes cross-cutting issues that encompass all aspects of its mandate, such as engaging in communication with the Malian population to publicize its mandate, its role, and to emphasize the role and responsibilities of the Malian authorities regarding the protection of civilians and the implementation of the Agreement.
As well, the development of measures to combat misinformation and disinformation is a prominent broad-spectrum issue; as is raising awareness on the UN's zero tolerance policy on sexual exploitation and abuse, or advocating for gender equality and the full participation and representation of women at all levels in the stabilization process.
The protection of children, particularly in the context of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration and well as within the security sector reform to end and prevent violations and abuses against children, is also a notable issue at the intersection of several components of the Mission’s mandate. Finally, all of the Mission’s priorities converge at the consideration of the environmental impact of all its activities, in accordance with applicable and relevant General Assembly resolutions.
More Info : Resolution 2640 (2022)